Friday, May 22, 2020
Each year in the USA there are approximately one million reports of child maltreatment, about 25% relate to physical abuse and about 1000 children die of maltreatment each year (US Department of Health and Human Services 1999). During the past few decades, researchers have aimed at detecting the children, who are at high risk of becoming victims of abuse, so that appropriate interventions can be undertaken. The risk factors that have been emphasized include characteristics of the child, family, and social environment, and the relationship. One of the risk factors that have been widely studied is the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ upbringing, specifically whether he or she was abused as a child. This risk factor is often referred to as intergenerationalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One reason may be that these adults believe that frequent experience with corporal punishment in childhood, beatings, was normal. Kadushin and Martin (1981) found that nearly every report of child abuse was precipitated by a behavior in the child that the parent felt called for disciplinary action. Therefore, in part, this appears to be related to cultural acceptance of violence (Hilberman 1980), but it also implies an identification with the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s views on corporal punishment. In one investigation (Kotelchuk 1982), parents were asked to describe their childhood experience. Investigators coding the descriptions were far more likely than parents to consider the experiences to have been abusive, on the other hand, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to a dir ect question about having been abused were not related to punitive treatment of their children. Though there has been a tremendous amount of research done on this subject I believe that it is important to continue to research this with the hope of finding a reason for this abuse and putting an end to it. For this reason I propose to conduct a longitudinal experiment to determine whether children who are abused grow up to display the same abusive behavior with their children. Method The experimental group will consist of subjects who were previously abused now seeking counseling for emotional assistance. They will be randomly selected from a study of 347 families from lower income backgrounds. The children involved
Friday, May 8, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in a name? Would not a rose by any other name smell as sweet?Ã¢â¬ William Shakespeare, a name we have all heard at some point, but who is he? William Shakespeare, the man who has influenced our culture through his various literary works. What is the truth behind the brilliant man whom penned the renowned words filling the pages of the ever significant Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado About Nothing, or The Tempest? William Shakespeare was born William Shakspere. Aside from contemporary and popular belief, it is a common misconception that his last name included the Ã¢â¬Å"eÃ¢â¬ after the Ã¢â¬Å"kÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"aÃ¢â¬ after the Ã¢â¬Å"peÃ¢â¬ . Spelling was incredibly disorganized during the Elizabethan time period (Whalen 31). Families could have the same last name, butÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Attributable to the lack of records, there are portions of his life missing from historical accounts. No school attendance logs have ever been found. Without a doubt, researchers believe he went to school, due to his outstanding aptitude with the written word. Although that is all merely speculation due to the scarcity of surviving records from that time period (Whalen 9). At the exceptionally youthful age of eighteen, William Shakespeare met Anne Hathaway, who was twenty-six. In 1582, no doubt due to an already pregnant Anne, they had an abrupt wedding. A short six months later, their healthy daughter was born in 1583 and they named her Susanna. Less than two years later in 1585, the couple had a boy and a girl, twins. The boy was named Hamnet and the girl Judith. Hamnet lived only a short eleven years, but both Susanna and Judith lived long lives and even survived their father. Researchers speculate that Shakespeare most likely relocated to the metropolitan city of London to pursue the acting career shortly after the birth of his twins. In 1585, William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s name appeared on a record of payment for two performances in front of the queen through the acting company the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s ChamberlainÃ¢â¬â¢s Men (Whalen 133). At the age of thirty-four, LoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Labour Lost appeared containing ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s name on the title page; this was the first of his works printed with his nameShow MoreRelatedThe Tempest By William Shakespeare1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Tempest by William Shakespeare is the final play penned by the famous Bard. The play portrays the illusory struggle of power and conscience through the character of Prospero and his egocentric motives. Politically, the play can be seen as an analysis of important political issues relevant to that of oppression and imperialistic tendencies of the time. Artistically, The Tempest em phasizes the nature of art, more prominently, theatrical art. Being the final play that Shakespeare ever wrote, itRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare Essay1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHamlet by William Shakespeare explores many aspects of mankind--death, betrayal, love, and mourning. Out of these, the most prominent theme in this play is death in the form of suicide. The main character, Hamlet, finds himself questioning the quality of life and the uncertainty of the afterlife once he discovers news of his father s death and the corruption in the kingdom that follows. Ophelia, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s lover, is found dead later in the plot and is presumed to have committed suicide. In HamletÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare, author of Hamlet, was a well-known author in the 1500s and is still popular today. He was born on April 24, 1564 in London, England. Although there were no birth records at that time, it shows he was baptized one year prior to that, which leads us to believe his birthday was in 1564 because children were normally baptized a year after their birth. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style was very different than others at that time. He used many metaphors and rhetorical phrases, and most ofRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Works Of Shakespeare1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesback story of the author himself; William Shakespeare. Shakespeare was born April 26, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, which is located in the United Kingdom. Even though his goals were to become an actor, he fell into writing and become one of the most well-known writers in his life. There s a lot of contr oversy surrounding Shakespeare and there s many people who believe that he, himself did not write his famous plays, sonnets, and poems. In his lifetime, Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays, five longRead MoreEssay On William Shakespeare1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis is an informational essay about Poet, Actor, and Playwright,William Shakespeare. In this essay you can find much information ranging from fun facts to his death. This essay tells much about his life and includes some details of family members. The key purpose of this essay is to inform curious people about William Shakespeare. Ã¢â¬Å"I regard the theatre as the greatest of all art forms, the most immediate way in which a human being can share with another the sense of what it is to be a humanRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHamlet, written by William Shakespeare, with out a doubt holds the most famous soliloquy in English history spoken by Hamlet in Act III, scene i, lines 57-90. This soliloquy holds much importance to the play as a whole because it ties together the reoccurring themes of suicide and HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s inaction portrayed by Shakespeare. Hamlet poses a problem, which is the driving force of the play: Ã¢â¬Å"To be or not to be?Ã¢â¬ (III.i.57). Shakespeare uses this logical question asked by Hamlet to drive out his underlyingRead More William Shakespeare Essay1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages William Shakespeare nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;On April 26, 1564, John Shakespeares son, William, was baptized at the Stratford Parish Church. No one knows for certain when his birthday was. (Brown 22) It was thought that young Shakespeare began attending school at the age 7, in Stratford. (Wadsworth 344) Before Shakespeare reached the age of 13, his family endured hardships. Shakespeares formal schooling ceased. At that time, William may have begun helping his father in the gloving businessRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesno ordinary villain but a Machiavellian fictional character. The deviation between the two would be Iago does anything needed to accomplish his goal. He supports Machiavelli s statement that Ã¢â¬Å"the end justifies the meansÃ¢â¬ with his actions within Shakespeare s Othello. Iago accomplished his goal through a thought out plan in which he did anything necessary; even murder. I am using his article, to claim the motive for Iago comes from the character Othello giving a job to a man named Cassio. Iago believedRead MoreThe World Of William Shakespeare950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworld of William Shakespeare was such a time. In the age of manÃ¢â¬â¢s revision of his culture and sense of humanity after the dark Middle Ages there was money and fame to be earned in the gossipy tales of mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s utter lack of culture and cruel inhumanity. In truth, it has never stopped, the same plot devices in service by the playwrights of the Renaissance are still drawing blood and audiences today. It is always intriguing to hear salacious stories of someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong doing, and Shakespeare had aRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, the protagonist suffers from struggles with major characters, especially with the women in his life. While reading the play Hamlet, Hamlet appears to be a disillusioned man. Throughout the play, Shakespeare has only casted two females: Gertrude and Ophelia. Gertrude is defined to be incestuous, naÃ ¯ve and cold-hearted. On the other side, Ophelia is characterized to be ignorant, innocent and fearful. After the quick marriage of his mother and evil uncle, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chapter 5 All the gods except Poseidon gather again on Mount Olympus to discuss OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech in support of the hero prevails on Zeus to intervene. Hermes, messenger of the gods, is sent to CalypsoÃ¢â¬â¢s island to tell her that Odysseus must at last be allowed to leave so he can return home. We will write a custom essay sample on The Odyssey: Book 5/6 Summary Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now In reply, Calypso delivers an impassioned indictment of the male gods and their double standards. She complains that they are allowed to take mortal lovers while the affairs of the female gods must always be frustrated. In the end, she submits to the supreme will of Zeus. By now, Odysseus alone remains of the contingent that he led at Troy; his crew and the other boats in his force were all destroyed during his journeys. Calypso helps him build a new boat and stocks it with provisions from her island. With sadness, she watches as the object of her love sails away. After eighteen days at sea, Odysseus spots Scheria, the island of the Phaeacians, his next destination appointed by the gods. Just then, Poseidon, returning from a trip to the land of the Ethiopians, spots him and realizes what the other gods have done in his absence. Poseidon stirs up a storm, which nearly drags Odysseus under the sea, but the goddess Ino comes to his rescue. She gives him a veil that keeps him safe after his ship is wrecked. Athena too comes to his rescue as he is tossed back and forth, now out to the deep sea, now against the jagged rocks of the coast. Finally, a river up the coast of the island answers OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s prayers and allows him to swim into its waters. He throws his protective veil back into the water as Ino had commanded him to do and walks inland to rest in the safe cover of a forest. Calypo complains to the gods that the male gods always get to have relationships with mortal females whereas the goddesses Summary: Book 6 That night, Athena appears in a dream to the Phaeacian princess Nausicaa, disguised as her friend. She encourages the young princess to go to the river the next day to wash her clothes so that she will appear more fetching to the many men courting her. The next morning, Nausicaa goes to the river, and while she and her handmaidens are naked, playing ball as their clothes dry on the ground, Odysseus wakes in the forest and encounters them. Naked himself, he humbly yet winningly pleads for their assistance, never revealing his identity. Nausicaa leaves him alone to wash the dirt and brine from his body, and Athena makes him look especially handsome, so that when Nausicaa sees him again she begins to fall in love with him. Afraid of causing a scene if she walks into the city with a strange man at her side, Nausicaa gives Odysseus directions to the palace and advice on how to approach Arete, queen of the Phaeacians, when he meets her. With a prayer to Athena for hospitality from the Phaeacians, Odysseus sets out for the palace. Analysis: Books 5Ã¢â¬â6 Our first encounter with Odysseus confirms what we have already learned about him from MenelausÃ¢â¬â¢s and HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts of his feats during the Trojan War and what HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s audience would already have known: that Odysseus is very cunning and deliberative. The poet takes pains to show him weighing every decision: whether to try landing against the rocky coast of Scheria; whether to rest by the river or in the shelter of the woods; and whether to embrace NausicaaÃ¢â¬â¢s knees (the customary gesture of supplication) or address her from afar. The shrewd and measured approach that these instances demonstrate balances OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s warrior mentality. Though aggressive and determined, he is far from rash. Instead, he is shrewd, cautious, and extremely self-confident. At one point, he even ignores the goddess InoÃ¢â¬â¢s advice to abandon ship, trusting in his seafaring abilities and declaring, Ã¢â¬Å"[I]tÃ¢â¬â¢s what seems best to meÃ¢â¬ (5. 397). In each case, he makes a decision and converts thought to action with speed and poise. In his encounter with Nausicaa, a telling example of his skill in interacting with people and charisma, his subdued approach comes off as Ã¢â¬Å"endearing, sly and suaveÃ¢â¬ (6. 162). How to cite The Odyssey: Book 5/6 Summary Analysis, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
Case Study Summary TOMSÃ¢â¬â¢s shoe was a brainchild of Blake Mycoskie. He established the company in 2006 with the aim of donating one pair of shoes to a poor child elsewhere for every pair of shoes sold by his company.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on TOMS shoes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This idea came after Mycoskie paid a vacation in a remote village in Argentina where he personally witnessed poor children who could not afford shoes walking bare footed oblivious of the dangerous skin disease called podoconiosis that could be transmitted from soil. He had passion for these children and could not think of a better way to help them apart from setting up a for-profit shoe company that would supply children with shoes every year. In addition, the unique design of the low-cost alpargatas shoes traditionally made by local Argentineans had a unique design not common in the north. As a result, Mycoskie th ought of starting up a shoe manufacturing company that will not only emulate the design, but also improve on it. In other words, he was determined to introduce a unique fashion makeover in the manufacture of shoes (Armstrong Kotler, 2011). Since 2006 when TOMS shoes was incepted, the company has given out tens of thousands of shoes to poor children across the world. Moreover, TOMS shoes has struck licensing deals with quite a number of companies with the aim of not just marketing the product but also sensitizing the entire populace on the need to assist needy children. For instance, Ralph Lauren has been one of his partners alongside other retail stores scattered across New York ad other states. For Blake Mycoskie, running a one-for-one business model will ensure sustainability of the business. As he argues, he could have spent the whole half million dollar to donate shoes for poor children only once but be unable to assist them thereafter. However, the one-fo- one model is a susta inable way of keeping the business afloat apart from fully participating in philanthropic activities.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketing theories The most vibrant marketing tool for TOMS shoes has been charity work or philanthropic activities. Even in the midst of recession when most retail and wholesale business were underperforming, TOMS remained profitable. When other companies were reducing their workforce, TOMS was hiring even more. The company has grown from a local little known firm in United States into a renowned shoe manufacturing firm with subsidiaries across the world. For instance, it has manufacturing and distributing plants in United States, Argentina, South Africa and Ethiopia. As a marketing theory, philanthropy has worked well for TOMS. It has created a very powerful network for the company in the sense that people like associating themselves wi th businesses which do not just seek profits, but do so for a particular cause. For TOMS, this cause has been realized through giving out a pair of shoes to a poor child whenever a pair is sold by the company. Mycoskie had really struggled for some time thinking about the type and nature of business that would elicit passion to him, over and above making profit. After participating in The Amazing Race with his sister and later came across the needy children in Argentina, he had his goal rightly fixed in place. At this point, it is imperative to note that the choice on which type of charity marketing to engage to engage in is usually a more difficult decision. There are quite a number of businesses on the ground which does participate in charity activities as a way of marketing their products but unfortunately, the outcomes are not impressive. In the contrary, Mycoskie chose a charitable business that he personally believed in. He had affinity and passion for it. As a result, he spen ds a lot of his time distributing thousands of shoes to needy children and sometimes playing with them. Philanthropic marketing needs to offer a meaningful exposure not just to beneficiaries of the charity, people with influence should also be able to identify themselves with such businesses (Armstrong Kotler, 2011). Besides, the best talent and skills should be brought on board whenever carrying out philanthropic activities. In this regard, TOMS has been doing quite good.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on TOMS shoes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company has received several recognitions in United States. For instance, the company received a PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s design Award way back in 2007. In addition, TOMS has excelled beyond imagination in line with social entrepreneurship. In terms of attracting talent, Mycoskie argues that it would be an exercise in futility if employees work with the knowledge of m eeting a need somewhere while individually, they are not inspired or motivated within their line of duty. The company confirms that motivation is crucial for its workforce. In most cases, psychological desires precede motivation. An employee who is intrinsically motivated does not necessarily require to be impressed by external factors before working smart to improve the productivity of an organisation. However, most employees would appreciate to be externally motivated, either by the style of leadership in place or better working conditions, where job satisfaction is not an illusion but reality. It is therefore most important for the management at TOMS to devise ways and means of maintain a high level motivation to employees for sustained productivity (Armstrong Kotler, 2011). One away through which TOMS can motivate its huge bulk of employees is by enriching their jobs. The different roles and responsibilities assigned to employees should be designed in a manner that it will prov ide chances for growth, attaining set goals and recognizing achievements. Job enrichment should also entail greater authority among employees to exercise not just their skills and competences but also the unique talents which each one is endowed with. TOMS employees can be motivated through a well defined process of setting goals for the organisation. Studies have revealed that people tend to be motivated to work when there are certain goals to be achieved after a given period of time. At this point, it is undisputed that TOMS can attain its short, medium and long term goals once they have been set. Nevertheless, it implies that employees will only be motivated when they are part and parcel of goal setting.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, each group member within wider TOMS community should be made to visualize the importance of the goals being set. In most cases, employees will not inject an additional effort if they have no clear idea on how the set goals are going to beneficial, not just to the organisation, they should also derive quantifiable benefits upon achieving the goals (Kaynak, 2002). Goal setting as a way of motivating employees comes with its own cost if it is to be successful. Firstly, there are five core principles which the management at TOMS should bear in mind for this theory to be fruitful: the set goals should be clear, challenging, demonstrate high level of task complexity, have a feedback system and also demonstrate commitment. The performance of employees and their general commitment to the well being of a organisation is paramount. The commitment of employees in organizations in relation to corporate social responsibility is very important if any positive growth is to be realized. O rganizations which optimize on the potential of employees in their different areas of skills, competence and talent are more likely to reap huge benefits alongside meeting the needs of consumers in the dynamic market. Moreover, there is a close link between organizational commitment and the general social corporate responsibility (CSR). Through well coordinated CSR, employees and above all, the target market will be able to build long terms relationship. This will in turn create a healthy ground for customer loyalty towards consuming products and services from a particular organisation (Kaynak, 2002). One significant attribute of employee-focused CSR is that organizations can boost the performance of their employees by engaging then in social exercises like in the case of TOMS. One way through which this can be achieved is through involving the employees in the process of identification of the community needs as well as charting the way forward on how to meet the very needs. Further , organizations ought to involve the welfare and overall well being of employees in the course of discharging corporate duties. Consumers complete the channel of production and as a result, their needs should also be met. The success of the benefits derived from employee-focused can only be met if the respective organizations comply with the government requirements. Case study questions What trends in the marketing environment have contributed to the success of TOMSÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes? TOMS shoes has benefitted a great deal form the current marketing trends in place. It is worthy to note that trends in marketing have changed a lot especially with the introduction and adoption of internet as a marketing tool. Similar to most companies, TOMS shoes is also ridding on the merits of internet marketing. For instance, the company has made managed to market its One day Without Shoes event through the internet. By joining this marketing bandwagon, TOMS is currently well known around the world. T he second most popular marketing entails the use of Search Engine Optimization (SEO). Using search engines to locate companies and their product offering has continually grown in popularity and it has equally been good riddance for TOMS shoes. Search engines enable sites to appear and be easily seen by prospective clients. Most companies are currently are utilizing SEOs to drive more traffic into their sites. More benefits can be derived when SEO is used appropriately. TOMS is also upbeat in the use of video marketing in marketing itself to the world. It is a common and growing concept through which businesses are utilizing as an outreach channel for the target market. It is a trend that has gripped the market bearing in mind people will generally prefer to watch a video clip as a piece of advertisement in preference to reading. Video marketing engages the prospective client both by sight and sound (Wang, Wang Williams, 2010). The intensive use of social media is also taking shape and growing very fast in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing world. At first, social media was never thought to be an effective tool in marketing. However, it has gained popularity and most companies have opted for it. As a viral marketing tool, the use of social media such as facebook, twitter and blogs is generally affordable. Finally, TOMS has also not been left out in e-mail marketing. It is one way of reaching out for a large number of people within a very short time. Besides, costs associated with e-mail marketing are relatively low. Did TOMSÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes first scan the marketing environment in creating its strategy, or did it create its strategy and fit the strategy to the environment? Does this matter? TOMS shoes is a story of innovation and an original idea that incorporates charity as well as profit making. Its uniqueness is what makes the company stands out. As such, TOMS shoes created its own marketing strategy and then fitted it into the marketing environment with the aim of mak ing a difference in a poor childÃ¢â¬â¢s life as well as driving the company toward profitability (Wang, Wang Williams, 2010). There are several practices within the company that support this position. For example, the one-for-one movement is characteristically unique; for every pair of shoes sold by the company, one pair is charitably given out to a needy child. It is a simple but unique business model. Surprisingly, the strategy fitted so well into the environment since clients were well convinced that it was for a worthy cause. It really matters for a new business entering a competitive market to devise marketing strategies that will be above par relative to other competitors. TOMS shoes did not have to scan the environment first and develop parallel strategies. Rather, it came up with an unfamiliar marketing concept that has seen it grow by leaps and bounds. Is TOMSÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy more about serving needy children or about creating value for customers? Realistically speakin g, TOMSÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes serves both purposes. Firstly, Mycoskie had long thought of a business plan that would not merely generate profits, but that which would elicit passion, fun and interest. He was already running a personal company but he was not fully convinced if it was the right thing to do. According to the video case, the inception of TOMS shoes was a turning point for Mycoskie since he could do business as well as engage in charity work at the same time. From the view of things, he loves children. On the other hand, Mycoskie was also inspired by the native design of the traditional Argentina shoes. He felt that by exporting the design to United States, people will love it, and he did exactly that. For him, it was a vacation turned business venture. As can be noted both in the text and video case, TOMS shoes are found in various designs. The company is continually working on other innovative ways of improving both quality and design in order to meet the tastes and preferenc es of customers. In spite of TOMS success in the manufacture, sell and charitable distribution of shoes, the company can still widen its business scope in reaching out for a bigger population. It is pertinent to note that TOMS shoes is currently operating in just two African countries namely Ethiopia and South America. Worse still, there are millions of children who have not been reached yet. In order to improve the outreach program, it is vital for TOMS to decentralize its shoe manufacturing and marketing operations in the needy areas so that the shoe drops can be implemented quite easily. In addition, the One day Without Shoes event should be made more public and well known. The company should devise more rigorous marketing tools that will see it sell more shoes and donate more as well. For instance, Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is one area that has not been utilized optimally. References Armstrong, G. Kotler, P. (2011). Marketing: an introduction, (10th ed.), New York: Pears on Prentice Hall. Kaynak, E. (2002). Strategic global marketing: issues and trends, New York: Haworth Press. Wang, J. Wang, G. Williams, L. (2010). Able Trend: Identifying and Analyzing Market Trends for Trading Success, Hoboken: Wiley Sons. This assessment on TOMS shoes was written and submitted by user Nathalie Mercado to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Air Quality Essays - Aerosols, Air Pollution, Free Essays Air Quality Air Quality & Dispersion Today, the air quality aspect of ARL research is by far the dominant theme, but distinctions among the themes remain somewhat vague. For example, the models developed for emergency response purposes are among those used for air quality prediction. The Air Quality and Dispersion theme is one of the strongest ties that binds ARL's components together. ARL is not heavily involved in the pure science of the business. Instead, ARL focusses on the need to assemble integrated understanding and models from all available sources, to develop the capability to predict changes in air quality that will follow changes in emissions, or that will occur as a result of meteorological factors. ARL air quality research extends to studies of atmospheric deposition essentially the coupling between the atmospheric pollutant environment and the surface below. ARL now operates the only research-grade deposition monitoring network in the nation: AIRMoN (the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network). Programs. Air Quality and Deposition Modeling Air quality models have demanded this kind of coupling for a considerable time. As a result, there are now well-developed descriptions of PBL processes in use in air quality models. ARL research products are now receiving a wider audience, within the mesoscale modeling community at large. It is recognized that modern models are invariably data assimilative, and that modern monitoring programs require coupled modeling activities for data interpretation. Model development programs are supported by a vigorous physical modeling program, located at Research Triangle Park, NC. ARL operates one of the nation's major fluid modeling facilities, at which studies are conducted on the effects of mountains, buildings, and other surface obstacles on atmospheric flow patterns. Integrated Monitoring, and AIRMoN The Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network is an atmospheric component to the overall national integrated monitoring initiative that is currently evolving. AIRMoN has two principal components: wet and dry deposition. ARL presently focuses its research attention on the measurement of precipitation chemistry with fine time resolution (AIRMoN-wet), the development of systems for measuring deposition, both wet and dry, the measurement of dry deposition using micrometeorological methods (AIRMoN-dry), the development of techniques for assessing air-surface exchange in areas (such as specific watersheds) where intensive studies are not feasible, and the extension of local measurements and knowledge to describe areal average exchange in numerical models. Aerosols and visibility ARL specializes in the geochemical cycling of atmospheric aerosols, particularly the particulate component. Research groups in ARL concentrate on (a) the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, (b) the transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, (d) the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, (e) the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes, and (f) the assembly of numerical models. Specific topics include the injection of dust and soil particles into the atmosphere, the long-range transport of particles through the atmosphere, the production of aerosol particles in the air by chemical reactions, the scavenging of airborne particles by clouds and their subsequent deposition in precipitation, and the dry deposition of particles as air moves across different landscapes. International ARL serves as the leader of the U.S. multi-agency effort to impose formalized and uniform quality assurance programs on the many national air quality and deposition monitoring networks that are operational around the globe. How are ozone concentrations calculated with Hysplit? Ozone is then calculated from the photostationary state equation. The IER solution is used in the operational Hysplit ozone calculation. The pollutant particles are tracked and air concentrations for each species are computed each advection time step following the usual lagrangian approaches. At the conclusion of the advection step the GRS differential equations are solved on the concentration grid (Eulerian solution), and the change of concentration of each pollutant species is applied to the pollutant mass on the particles that contributed concentration to each grid cell. -Eulerian chemistry solution on the grid dc/dt = Equations 1 - 7} 1) ROC + hv -* RP + ROC Nitric oxide-ozone titration reaction 5) RP + RP -* RP k5 = 10200 Sink for nitrogen dioxide to stable gaseous nitrates
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Quoting Out of Context Fallacy (Changing Meaning) The fallacy of quoting something out of context is often included in the Fallacy of Accent, and it is true that there are strong parallels. However, Aristotles original Fallacy of Accent referred solely to shifting the accent on syllables within words, and it is already stretched in modern discussions of fallacies to include shifting the accent between words within a sentence. To expand it further to include shifting emphasis on entire passages is, perhaps, going a bit far. For that reason, the concept of quoting out of context gets its own section. What does it mean to quote someone out of context? After all, every quotation necessarily excludes large sections of the original material and is thus an out of context quotation. What makes this a fallacy is to take a selective quotation which distorts, alters, or even reverses the originally intended meaning. This can be done accidentally or deliberately. Examples and Discussion Quoting out of Context A good example is already hinted at in the discussion of the Fallacy of Accent: irony. A statement meant ironically can be taken wrong when in written form because much irony is communicated through the emphasis when spoken. Sometimes, however, that irony is communicated more clearly through the addition of more material. For example: 1. This has been the best play Ive seen all year! Of course, it is the only play Ive seen all year.2. This was a fantastic movie, as long as you arent looking for plot or character development. In both of these reviews, you start out with an ironic observation which is followed by an explanation which communicates that the foregoing was meant to be taken ironically rather than literally. This can be a dangerous tactic for reviewers to employ because unscrupulous promoters can do this: 3. John Smith calls this the best play Ive seen all year!4. ...a fantastic movie... - Sandy Jones, Daily Herald. In both cases, a passage of the original material has been taken out of context and thereby given a meaning that is exactly the opposite of what was intended. Because these passages are being used in the implicit argument that others should come see the play or movie, they qualify as fallacies, in addition to just being unethical. What you see above is also part of another fallacy, the Appeal to Authority, which attempts to convince you of the truth of the proposition by appealing to the opinion of some authority figure - usually, though, it appeals to their actual opinion rather than a distorted version of it. It is not uncommon for the Quoting Out Of Context fallacy to be combined with an Appeal to Authority, and it is frequently found in creationist arguments. For example, here is a passage from Charles Darwin, often quoted by creationists: 5. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against the theory. The Origin of Species (1859), Chapter 10 Obviously, the implication here is that Darwin doubted his own theory and had encountered a problem he could not solve. But lets look at the quote in the context of the two sentences following it: 6. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely-graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and serious objection which can be urged against the theory.The explanation lies, as I believe, in the extreme imperfection of the geological record. In the first place, it should always be borne in mind what sort of intermediate forms must, on the theory, have formerly existed... It is now obvious that instead of raising doubts, Darwin was simply using a rhetorical device to introduce his own explanations. The exact same tactic has been used with quotations from Darwin about the development of the eye. Of course, such methods are not limited to just creationists. Here is a quote from Thomas Henry Huxley used on alt.atheism by Rooster, a.k.a Skeptic: 7. This is ... all that is essential to Agnosticism. That which Agnostics deny and repudiate, as immoral, is the contrary doctrine, that there are propositions which men ought to believe, without logically satisfactory evidence; and that reprobation ought to attach to the profession of disbelief in such inadequately supported propositions.The justification of the Agnostic principle lies in the success which follows upon its application, whether in the field of natural, or in that of civil, history; and in the fact that, so far as these topics are concerned, no sane man thinks of denying its validity. The point of this quote is to try and argue that, according to Huxley, all that is essential to agnosticism is to deny that there are propositions which we should believe even though we do not have logically satisfactory evidence. However, this quote misrepresents the original passage: 8. I further say that Agnosticism is not properly described as a negative creed, nor indeed as a creed of any kind, except in so far as it expresses absolute faith in the validity of a principle, which is as much ethical as intellectual. This principle may be stated in various ways, but they all amount to this: that it is wrong for a man to say that he is certain of the objective truth of any proposition unless he can produce evidence which logically justifies that certainty.This is what Agnosticism asserts; and, in my opinion, it is all that is essential to Agnosticism. That which Agnostics deny and repudiate, as immoral, is the contrary doctrine, that there are propositions which men ought to believe, without logically satisfactory evidence; and that reprobation ought to attach to the profession of disbelief in such inadequately supported propositions.The justification of the Agnostic principle lies in the success which follows upon its application, whether in the field of natural, or in that of civil, history; and in the fact that, so far as these topics are concerned, no sane man thinks of denying its validity. [emphasis added] If you notice, the phrase it is all that is essential to Agnosticism actually refers to the preceding passage. Thus, what is essential to Huxleys agnosticism is that people should not claim to be certain of ideas when they do not have the evidence which logically justifies such certainty. The consequence of adopting this essential principle, then, leads agnostics to repudiate the idea that we ought to believe things when we lack satisfactory evidence. Combining the Out of Context Fallacy with Other Fallacies Another common way to use the fallacy of quoting out of context is to combine with a Straw Man argument. In this, someone is quoted out of context so that their position appears weaker or more extreme than it is. When this false position is refuted, the author pretends that they have refuted the real position of the original person. Of course, most of the examples above are do not by themselves qualify as arguments. But it would not be unusual to see them as premises in arguments, either explicit or implicit. When this happens, then a fallacy has been committed. Until then, all we have is simply an error.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Problem solving - Essay Example erience and judgement bias, facilitates easy assessment of situations, and allows the management to remain on the right track of organisational goals (Wilson 2000). There is a need to solve problems so that decisions can be made effectively. Young individuals between the age group of 16 and 24 years are valuable resources for a nations future. They are often overlooked instead of offered community support system to foster creativity, productivity and development. There is a misconception that youths are essentially bad whereas research indicates that (Godwin 1998) adolescents and youths of today come under much pressure from society such as stress, fast-paced lifestyles, responsibilities at home, emotional upheaval, victimisation, and peer pressures. This is why young people today more than before tend to engage in drinking alcohol, violent crimes, promiscuity, and offences against the law. The widespread risk behaviours have developed a generation of young delinquents who require extensive help from the community. Some of the risk factors include lack of education, poor parenting and drugs problems according to Adamsons report on youth crime (2003). The problem of youth risk behaviours can be analysed by using the Fishbone diagram (Wealleans 2001). In the following diagram one can observe that youth risk behaviours are caused by individual attitudes (man), poverty (material), lack of education (machine), poor parenting (management), and peer pressure and lifestyles (environment). These causes also have sub-causes such as the need to be recognised or to find excitement; lack of education may be due to dropping out of schools; poor parenting may be due to absent working parents or belonging to single parents; and peer pressure may include victimisation or gang bullying. As a result of these causes and sub-causes, youths engage in the above risk behaviours (effect). The Fishbone technique, a part of the cause-and-effect group, involves the identification of